This searchable bibliography contains 1152 citations of popular and technical papers on sengis or elephant-shrews. It was assembled by Galen Rathbun, Patricia Holroyd, Peter Woodall, and Dieter Kock, and is considered virtually complete as of February 2013.

   Feedback: Galen Rathbun (Content)

Search Instructions:

Searches are carried out on all components of the citations, including author(s), title, unabbreviated journal title, and a list of keywords (see below). Although keywords are in upper case in the citations and these instructions, search expressions are NOT case sensitive. Correct syntax, however, is important because the search engine is relatively unforgiving.

A search expression can be specified as:

  • A single search term
    • a word – e.g., Rathbun
    • a phrase (two or more words separated by spaces) enclosed in double quotes
      – e.g., "SOUTH AFRICA"
    • A partial word or phrase ending with a wild card (*) and enclosed in double quotes
      – e.g., "ecolog*"
  • Two (or more) search terms joined by one of three logical operators: [ and ], [ or ], and [ and not ]
    (terms can be grouped by using parentheses - see examples below).

Below are some examples of search expressions.

Example of Search Expression
single word testicond
single word testiconda
wildcard (*) "testicond*"
single word Journal
phrase "Journal of Mammalogy"
single word FitzGibbon
logical and FitzGibbon and Rathbun
logical and NAMIBIA and "SOUTH AFRICA"
logical or NAMIBIA or "SOUTH AFRICA"
single word food
logical or food or feeding
logical or and not (food or feeding) and not parasites
complex expression (food or feeding) and not (parasites or mortality)
phrase "behavior/nutrition"
complex expression
with dates
(phylogeny or molecular) and ("198*" or "199*")

Hierarchical Searches:


Each citation has been assigned keywords from the list below. In the citations, the keywords are listed in caps, however searches are not case sensitive. Many keywords are composed of two terms separated by a slash (e.g., BEHAVIOR/SOCIAL). These two-term keywords can be entered as a quoted phrase – e.g. "MORPHOLOGY/NUTRITION". Any keyword, of course, can be used by itself – e.g., BEHAVIOR. The use of one or the other word in paired keyword allows hierarchical searches. For example, the keyword REPRODUCTION occurs in several combinations, including BEHAVIOR / REPRODUCTION, MORPHOLOGY / REPRODUCTION, etc. To find only those citations related to reproductive behavior, use the phrase "BEHAVIOR / REPRODUCTION". To find all citations related to reproduction, use the search expression REPRODUCTION. Similarly, to find all citations related to behavior use the expression BEHAVIOR. Remember, searches are carried out on all components of the citations, thus a single word expression such as EVOLUTION may give a different result than the phrase "EVOLUTION*".


Location: Most citations are associated with a particular country in Africa. If no country can be assigned, but the general region of Africa is known, then the cardinal compass points (NORTHERN, EASTERN, etc.) have been assigned as keywords. If the location is irrelevant to the citation, such as laboratory-based work, then no location keyword has been assigned. If the name of a country has changed through time, it will only be listed under the name used in January 2000. No paired expressions separated by a slash are included for location.

Taxonomy: Keywords include all extinct taxa, but not the extant family or subfamilies. A genus name is used alone only when species can not be assigned. Species keywords include both the genus and species written out in full (e.g., ELEPHANTULUS INTUFI). This allows flexibility in constructing taxonomic searches of the bibliography.

Language: Languages include ENGLISH, GERMAN, JAPANESE, etc. Some references have been translated into English, and the additional keyword TRANSLATION has been assigned to these citations. No paired expressions separated by a slash are included for language.

Keyword list: Each keyword pair is annotated below with its contents in parentheses. The list below does not include location, taxa, or language keywords (see above):

GENERAL/BIOGEOGRAPHY (general spatial analyses and general habitat associations)

GENERAL/DISTRIBUTION (checklists, field guides, regional guides, bibliographies)

GENERAL/NATURAL HISTORY (reviews, photos, general and popular articles)

MORPHOLOGY/CIRCULATION (heart, lungs, blood-lymph systems, kidneys, internal glands)


MORPHOLOGY/MORPHOMETRICS (mass, growth, body-cranial measures)

MORPHOLOGY/NUTRITION (digestive tract)


MORPHOLOGY/SENSES (brain, nervous system, eyes, nose, ears, etc.)

MORPHOLOGY/SKELETAL (muscle-skeletal systems, cranium, dentition)

MORPHOLOGY/SKIN (pelage, coloration, glands, nipples, etc.)

EVOLUTION/MOLECULAR (genetics, proteins, karyotypes, etc.)

EVOLUTION/PALEONTOLOGY (fossils, fossil assemblages, sites)


EVOLUTION/TAXONOMY (descriptions of taxa, revisions of taxa)

POPULATION/COMMENSALS (all interspecific associations not parasitic or predatory)

POPULATION/DEMOGRAPHICS (sex ratios, age-classes, survivorships, etc.)

POPULATION/DENSITIES (abundance, changes in densities, rates, etc.)

POPULATION/HABITATS (fine-grain studies of habitat-use)

POPULATION/MORTALITY (predation, disease)


POPULATION/REPRODUCTION (litter sizes, gestation, birth intervals, etc.)

BEHAVIOR/MAINTENANCE (sheltering, auto-grooming, locomotion, elimination)


BEHAVIOR/REPRODUCTION (courtship, mating, nursing, parental)

BEHAVIOR/SENSES (visual, odor, acoustic communication)

BEHAVIOR/SOCIAL (play, allo-grooming, aggression, etc.)

BEHAVIOR/SPATIAL (social organization, mating system, home range, dispersal)

BEHAVIOR/TEMPORAL (time budget, diel patterns, etc.)

PHYSIOLOGY/BIOCHEMISTRY (hematology, neurology, etc.)

PHYSIOLOGY/CIRCULATION (renal, heart, lungs, etc.)

PHYSIOLOGY/MAINTENANCE (thermoregulation, locomotion, etc.)

PHYSIOLOGY/NUTRITION (diet, ingestion, digestion)

PHYSIOLOGY/PHYSIOMETRICS (basal rates, conductances, temperatures, etc.)

PHYSIOLOGY/REPRODUCTION (ovulation, lactation, estrus, spermatogenesis)

PHYSIOLOGY/SENSES (sight, smell, hearing, etc.)

MANAGEMENT/CONSERVATION (threats, threatened-endangered status, policy)

MANAGEMENT/ETHNOBIOLOGY (myths, subsistence hunting, products, local names, etc.)

MANAGEMENT/HUSBANDRY (facilities, diet, breeding, pathology, treatment, transport)

MANAGEMENT/TECHNIQUES (survey, capture, marking, drugs, aging)